Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Throwback Tuesday: Radio Announcer Keith Glover

KEITH GLOVER. WHO REMEMBERS THIS RADIO AUSTRALIA ANNOUNCER?

Anyone who was listening to shortwave radio from the late 1940s to 1980  should remember the Radio Australia mailbag programme hosted by Keith Glover.

Glover joined the ABC in Queensland in 1947 and later when he moved to Melbourne he joined Radio Australia, broadcasting from studios in the old cottage at the rear of Broadcast House, the 'biscuit factory' in Lonsdale Street, and finally from the new complex at East Burwood.

As presenter of Radio Australia's "Listeners' Mailbag" he was an interactive broadcaster well before the term was popularised and received a number of awards for international broadcasting.

I certainly remember him. I was listening from my grandmother's home in Arkansas in the summer of 1969. I submitted a reception report for this broadcast, and Keith in turn read my letter on air and followed up not only with a QSL card but a written transcript of  his broadcast.

Keith Glover’s voice was also well known on ‘home service’ radio, presenting a wide range of programmes including news bulletins, sporting panels, Anzac Day marches and Royal Tours. He was seen regularly on ABV Channel 2 and presented a ballroom dancing programme for a number of years.

In later years he moved into management, working as supervisor of  Radio Australia's English Language programming and finally as supervisor of radio presentation in Victoria.

HERE's a YouTube video (audio) of the final edition of Keith Glover's Mailbag programme, 28 December 1980.

Keith Glover retired from the ABC in 1985. He passed away in 2006.

Source: Radio Australia News

Friday, July 18, 2014

Al-Quds Radio - Gaza (Internet)

Al-Quds Radio in Gaza, Palestine. Events unfolding in Gaza may be heard on this FM station at 102.7 MHz. The other possibility is to catch their Internet feed on TuneIn App or the Al-Quds Radio WEBSITE. Programming is in Arabic.

Monday, July 14, 2014

Throwback Tuesday: Radio Announcer Larry Wayne

LARRY WAYNE. WHO REMEMBERS THIS DEUTSCHE WELLE ANNOUNCER?

I used to listen to Larry Wayne (aka Larry Wolfberg) over Deutsche Welle (The Voice of Germany)  in the 1960s and 1970s. He had a weekly segment called "Random Selection: Living in Germany".  Larry would regale his listeners with a "random selection" of current events, newspaper stories and his own observations of happenings around him in Germany, albeit from a tongue-in-cheek perspective.

He had a delightful way of telling a story, certainly enough to at least pique my interest and listen to him regularly. I recall one particular story about a dachshund. The cute little canine imbibed sizable quantities of liquor along with his owner on a daily basis. The poor pooch eventually succumbed to alcoholism and died. Sad tale, but humorous and touching in the manner in which Larry reported the story. It must have been, for strangely it remains the only one I remember.

Larry retired from Deutsche Welle many years ago, and later hosted a jazz programme in Sweden. He also authored a book entitled "Radio Man".

Saturday, July 12, 2014

Radio Kuwait

Radio Kuwait, transmitting from Sulaibiyah, was logged on 12 July 2014. Ramadan programming with Arabic music, station ID at the top the hour, followed Qu'ran recitation and Islamic talk in Urdu from 15.55 UTC onward. Reception on 15.540 kHz was good with SINPO of 45544, off the whip of a Sangean ATS-909W.

 HERE is a sample of  this Radio Kuwait broadcast at around 16.00 UTC.

In recent years Radio Kuwait has not verified, except for a non-descript letter acknowledging the listener. With a little luck one might get such a letter, plus a programme schedule and/or calendar. 

Wednesday, July 2, 2014

Gifts from Voice of Turkey

Voice of Turkey recently gifted this decorative pouch and coaster. They were given in response to their "Question of the Month" contest. The pouch sports an attractive arabesque design with a TRT Voice of Turkey logo stenciled on it. The coaster depicts Dolmabahce Palace. This makes around a dozen or more coasters received from Voice of Turkey.

I had expected QSL cards for reception reports submitted in June. Surprisingly these small, yet treasured presents turned up in my letterbox instead. What a pleasant surprise! Teşekkür Ederim, Voice of Turkey. 


Tuesday, July 1, 2014

Random Selection of QSLs

People collect just about anything in this world. Antique collectors search for any and all things old. Football fans pick up memorabilia of their favorite teams.  Philatelists acquire stamps. There is even a group of radio hobbyists who collect QSL cards.

1970s QSL from Radio Luxembourg
A QSL card? This is a colourful card, usually the size of a postcard, confirming a radio listener's reception of a broadcast station. Each card may depict a national landmark, cultural aspect or natural wonder of a country. In some cases a station's studio, antenna array or name is represented. Sometimes postage stamps will be duly placed on a card.

For many international broadcasters, a QSL card serves as a marketing tool to promote their station or country rather than a means of gathering data on reception.  Other commercial and government television and radio stations occasionally use a QSL card to measure the size of their audience and distance.

1970s QSL from Radio Lebanon
To obtain a QSL card, the listener must provide specific details about the station. Usually this entails the call sign of the station, time and date of transmission (designated in Coordinated Universal Time - UTC),  radio frequency,  mode of transmission,  reception quality and programme content. This is known as a reception report.

Almost any station  will issue a QSL card, simply by mailing or emailing the reception report directly to the station.. Upon verification most medium-wave, short-wave and FM broadcasters will issue a card. Time and frequency stations, such as WWVH in Hawaii,   will as well.  Short-wave marine and aircraft weather (VOLMET)  broadcasters will occasionally confirm, even some Internet, clandestine and pirate (Free Radio) stations. Amateur radio operators will too.

All one needs  is a good multiband radio, the patience to listen and -- as with most hobbies -- the enthusiasm to collect the QSL card, which incidentally derives its name from the original Q codes used in radio communication and radio broadcasting.

PERSONAL QSL COLLECTIONS
Since 2010, when I resumed the hobby of DXing and QSLing full time, I have amassed hundreds of verifications. Many duplicate QSL cards in my collection are in fact more often  from the same broadcaster, but for different transmitter sites. In light of so many national broadcasters either no longer QSLing or their radio services discontinued, relay sites are the best way to acquire verifiable countries. Here's a look at how some of these broadcasters brand their station and country.

Deutsche Welle, always an excellent verifier, confirmed past transmissions for their broadcasts from Ascension Island, Bonaire, Sines (Portugal), Rampisham and Woofferton (UK), Dhabbaya (UAE), Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), Kranji (Singapore), Meyerton (South Africa) and Kigali (Rwanda). Of the remaining transmitter sites, DW currently relays their broadcasts from Kigali.

Radio Netherlands Worldwide, another reliable verifier when they were active on short-wave until 2013, issued cards for their relay sites around the world: Santa Maria di Galeria (Vatican), Bonaire, Talata Volondry (Madagascar), Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), Dhabbaya (UAE), Medorn (Palau) and Agingan Point (North Mariana Islands).

NHK World - Radio Japan is another broadcaster that uses multiple relay sites to present their programmes. Among the sites QSLed are Santiago (Chile), Ascension Island, Issoudun (France), Wertachtal and Nauen (Germany), Talata Volondry (Madagascar), Dhabbaya (UAE),  Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Medorn (Palau), Kranji (Singapore) and Yamata (Japan). The the photography used in their QSLs can be rather artistic.

Polski Radio in the past five years relayed broadcasts from Skelton and Woofferton (UK) and Dhabbaya (UAE). On a rare occasional I received an eQSL among the traditional QSL cards. On one occasion they even QSLed for an internet broadcast via Radio 700 in Germany.

Radio Prague International has been QSLed for their internet and short-wave broadcasts. Before termination of their short-wave, this Czech Republic was verified from their Prague site, and more recently via WRMI in Okeechobee, Florida (USA). QSL cards featured former Czechoslovakian airplanes, trains, artists and similar heritage related topics. Souvenir items and stickers were regularly provided with each QSL card.


Radio Slovakia International was first QSLed from their shortwave facility in Bratislava, then subsequently via Internet stream and  WRMI in Okeechobee, Florida (USA). Landmarks of Slovakia initially were depicted on their cards, and finally vintage radios made in former Czechoslovakia. Souvenir items, i.e photos of English staff and coins, were occasionally included with each QSL card.


Radio Bulgaria was an excellent verifier until their final transmission in 2012. Presently their transmitter site in Kostinbrod/Sofia is utilized  by various broadcasters, i.e. Bible Voice Broadcasting, The Overcomer Ministry and ESAT.

Radio Romania International, transmitting from Galbeni and Tiganesti, is one the few East European stations still in operation, and will routinely lease their Tiganesti facility to other broadcasters, notably IRRS.

Radio New Zealand International, one of my favorite stations, is strictly homegrown and operates from Rangitaiki. I am particularly fond of their QSL series "Sounds Like Us". These QSls feature characteristics related to New Zealand in the form of a radio. Take a look at my previous comments HERE. Suffice it to say, creative stuff!

Voice of Russia for the most part transmitted from various transmitter sites around the country. Between 2010 till the end of their short-wave service in 2014, one of their more interesting QSL series was the commemorative Soviet manned space flight featuring Yuri Gugarin. Besides Taldom/Moscow, VoR could be heard from Cita, Samara, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk-Oyash, Krasnodar, Serpukhov, Petropavlovsky-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok. Having said this, VoR transmissions also radiated from Yerevan (Armenia), Dushanbe-Yangiyul Tajikistan), Kishinev-Grigoriopol (Republic of Moldova) and Baoji Xinjie (China).

Russian stations other than Voice of Russia issued QSLs too. Among these were RWN Russian Standard Frequency & Time Service (Moscow), St. Petersburg Regional Centre - VOR (St. Petersburg). Tartastan Wave and Radio Rossi (Moscow-Taldom). Interestingly, many regional affliliate stations of Radio Rossi were regularly received in Malaysia. Attempts to obtain QSLs from them were unsuccessful. Of the former Soviet stations QSLed, only Radio Ukraine International was obtained, and it regrettably for an Internet broadcast, a few years  after their short-wave service ceased.

China Radio International QSL card in recent years has depicted the various ethnicities within the country. Like the Voice of Russia, CRI and CNR have transmitter sites around the country, including Beijing, Lingshi, Nanning, Jinhua, Shijiazhuang, Kashgar (Xinjiang), Hohhot and Hailar (Inner Mongolia Automous Region). CRI has also QSLed for China Tibet Broadcasting, China National Radio, Beibu Bay Radio, PBS Sichuan 2 (Chengdu), PBS Quinghai (Xining), PBS Xinjiang (Urumqi), PBS Xizang (Lhasa-Baiding, Tibet) and PBS Gannan (Hezuo).  CRI has used transmitter relay sites in Spain, Cuba, Mali and Albania where Chinese nationals are employed.

Radio Taiwan International actively promotes their natural wonders, historical landmarks and culture too. QSLs for special broadcasts occasionally depict RTI transmitter sites, including Tanshui, Tainan and Paochung. Interestingly, like mainland China, Taiwan has a few private short-wave broadcasters like Sound of Hope, Fu Hsing Broadcasting Station, Voice of Guang-hua and PCJ Radio International, who will QSL for their respective stations.

Voice of Vietnam in an effort to promote their country has issued QSL cards in various languages, featuring national landmarks and cultural aspects. Besides domestic transmitter sites in Hanoi and DacLac (in former South Vietnam), VoV has QSLed for relay broadcasts from Moosbrunn (Austria) and Woofferton (UK).

Voice of America since 2010 has issued QSL cards depicting their transmitter relay sites from around the world. Aside from their only domestic transmitter -- the Edward R. Murrow facility -- in Greenville, North Carolina, VOA/IBB broadcasts have been QSLed for Bonaire, Santa Maria di Galeria (Vatican), Kuwait, Botswana, Sao Tome Principe,  Iranawila (Sri Lanka), Udon Thani (Thailand) and Tinang (Philippines). As most listeners know specific VOA/IBB broadcasts to Asia were axed in 2014.

Radio Free Asia was also affected in the cuts. Lao, Bangla and Vietnamese language broadcasts were discontinued, leaving Burmese, Uyghur, Tibetan, Chinese language broadcasts. Fortunately I have QSLs to show for RFA transmissions from Sitkunai (Lithuania), Ulaan Baator (Mongolia), Tinian and Agingan Point (North Mariana Islands), Trincomalee and Iranawilla (Sri Lanka), Tanshui (Taiwan), Kuwait, Dushanbe-Yangiyul (Tajikistan) and Dhabbaya (UAE).

Adventist World Radio, like so many evangelical broadcasters, i.e WYFR, Bible Voice Broadcasting, FEBA, FEBC, The Overcomer Ministry, PanAmerican Broadcasting, is an excellent verifier and heard from many transmitter sites worldwide. Inasmuch as my interest has been more in QSLing their myriad sites, rather than their programming, I have received AWR verifications for broadcasts from Moosbrunn (Austria), Nauen and Wertachtal (Germany), Agat (Guam), Trincomalee (Sri Lanka) and Okeechobee, Florida (USA).

WYFR - Family Radio used to be a dominant evangelical voice on shortwave until their demise in 2013. Their broadcasts were relayed from Ascenion Island, Montsinery-Tonnegrande (French Guinea), Bao-Zhong (Taiwan) and Almaty (Kazakhstan). Transmissions originated from their home site in Okeechobee, Florida (USA), and still does from WRMI who presently owns their former facility.


Vatican Radio, the voice of Catholicism along with Radio Veritas, has broadcast from transmitter sites other than Santa Maria di Galeria. An excellent verifier, I have received confirmations for their broadcasts from Talanta Volandry (Madagascar), Tinang (Philippines) and Tashkent (Uzbekistan).

Radio Habana Cuba, a powerhouse broadcaster in the Americas, is quite the DX catch in South East Asia. Their transmissions as well as those of Radio Nacional Venezuela and Radio China International have been QSLed from Habana.

 


Brazilian stations -- many operating below 50 kW -- are received in South East Asia, depending on the time of the year and propagation. Among the stations QSLed to date are Radio Aparecida (Sao Paulo), Radio 9 de Julho (Sao Paulo), Radio Guaruja (Florianopolis), Radio Trans Mundial (Santa Maria-Camobi), PPE Observatorio Nacional (Rio de Janeiro) and 250 kW powerhouse, Radio Nacional da Amazonia (Brasilia). Recent loggings include Radio Itatiaia (Belo Horizonte MG), Radio Marumby (Curitiba), Rádio Bandeirantes (Rio de Janeiro) and Radio Nacional da Brasilia.

All India Radio, a broadcaster relatively easy to hear but difficult to QSL, is received both on short-wave and medium-wave in Malaysia. While I have received many domestic AIR transmissions from around India and adjacent islands, I have managed only to obtain QSLs from transmitter sites in Aligarh, Bangalore, Delhi, Panaji (formerly Goa),  and Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala).


Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation offers a colourful series of eQSLs and QSL cards, depicting heritage landmarks, landscapes and SLBC transmitter sites. Over the past four years I have been fortunate to receive verifications for SLBC transmitter sites in Ekala and Trincomalee. Should one be unable to receive SLBC, Adventist World Radio and PCJ Radio International  relay their broadcasts from Trincomalee, the former Deutsche Welle site. All QSLs from SLBC and PCJ Radio are confirmed by veri-signer Victor Goonetilleke. IBB also relays VOA, RFA and RFE/RL broadcasts from Iranawila.

Voice of Turkey is another excellent verifer with equally impressive QSLs, depicting their nation's history, landmarks and culture. All transmissions originate from their powerful 500 kW transmitter site in Emirler.

Voice of Mongolia, transmitting solely from Ulaan Baator, is a reliable and consistent verifier. In an effort to promote tourism in Mongolia, QSL cards often portray landscapes and cultural aspects of the country. All QSLs have been sent by registered mail to my home, both for internet and short-wave broadcasts.

KBS World Radio in the Republic of Korea  readily confirms with QSL cards depicting Korean pop culture, current events and recently their 60th anniversary. Besides transmitting from Kimjae, KBS World Radio has relayed German language broadcasts from Woofferton (UK). KBS World Radio has even QSLed a BBC transmission orginating from Kimjae, although it was not stated on the card. Radio Canada International also used the Kimjae facility to relay their programming before ending their short-wave service, and they too were an excellent verifier.

Voice of Korea in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is as different as day and night from KBS World Radio. Programming is strictly government issue with DPRK political agenda and patriotic music regularly featured, not just on the radio but their QSL cards as well. Monuments to their glorious leaders are usually depicted on each card. VoK and affiliated government stations around the country are received on several short-wave bands in South East Asia. VoK as QSLed for Pyongyang Broadcasting Station in Kanggye.

Low-powered stations operating with less than 20 kW are always a challenge, both to listen and QSL. Among these prized stations I count Radio Verdad (Guatamala), Alcaravan Radio (Colombia), Radio Oriental (Ecuador), WWV and WWVH (Colorado and Hawaii), CHU (Canada), American Forces Radio (Diego Garcia and Guam), Radio Dunamis Shortwave (Uganda) Radio Spaceshuttle (pirate from Finland), The Cross (Federated States of Micronesia), Radio Vanuatu, Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation, Radio Republik Indonesia (Kalimantan, Maluku Utara, Papua Barat, Sulawesi, Java and Sumatra), National Broadcasting Corporation, Wantok Light and Radio Fly (Alotau, Port Moresby, Kiunga, Rabul, Jomba and Vanimo in Papua New Guinea) and many Brazilian broadcasters.

Clandestine stations with programming to Africa, Myanmar, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Kampuchea, China, Sarawak (East Malaysia), Iran and northern Iraq are received easily in South East Asia. Obtaining a QSL often proves more difficult, but is generally possible if transmission originates from Media Broadcast GmbH in Germany and TeleDiffusion de France. Of the many stations logged, I count the following among my confirmations: Radio Asena (Kostinbrod), Radio Bar-Kulan (Meyerton), SW Radio Africa (Meyerton), Democratic Voice of Burma (Yerevan), Radio Shiokaze (Yamata), Radio Voice of Martyrs (Tashkent), North Korea Reform Radio, Radio Oromiyaa - ORTO (Addis Ababa-Gedja), Media  Radio Mehr Iran (Issoudun), Radio Hilaac  (Issoudun), Afia Darfur   (Issoudun), Sagalee Bilisummaa Oromoo (Issoudun), Radio Biafra London-WRN  (Wertachtal), Sawtu Linjila Radio (Wertachtal), Radio Dardasha 7  (Wertachtal), Radio Impala (Talata Volondry), Radio Dialogue (Talata Volondry), Voice of Tibet (Talata Volondry), Radio PMR Pridnestrovie (Tiraspol), Radio Tamazuj (Dhabbaya), Radio Dabanga (Dhabbaya), Radio Free Sarawak  (Palau and Tiganesti), Radio Oromgenati (Tiganesti), Radio Miraya (Slovakia), Radio Free Chosun (Dushanbe-Yangiyul), and Radyo Denge Mezopatamya (Ukraine)

Specialty QSL cards of test transmissions and one day radio events occasionally air over short-wave. This may be more common in Europe with low-powered transmitters than anywhere else, and certainly not in my quarter of Asia. I have unfortunately missed many of these broadcasts, but have been fortunate to catch and receive confirmations for DX-Antwerp Special 30th Anniversary Broadcast (Issoudun and French Guiana), Rhein Main Radio Club Special (Lithuania), Hamburger Lokalradio test transmission (Gohren/Schwerin), WWV test transmission on 25 MHz (Fort Collins, Colorado), PCJ Radio International test transmission (Taiwan and Trincomalee) and BBC/Babcock test transmission for British Antarctica Survey (Woofferton and Dhabbaya).  

To see these and other QSLs individually follow this LINK.

Broadcasting Board of Governors Rationale for Short-wave Cuts

Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) offers rationale for in VOA, RFA and RFE/RL cuts to short-wave. Letitia King, spokesperson for BBG, provides the following reasons:

U.S. international media must optimize program delivery by market. We are ending some shortwave transmissions. We continue shortwave to those countries where these transmissions are still reaching significant audiences or where there are no reasonable alternative platforms at a lower cost to the BBG.

The shortwave reductions will save U.S. taxpayers almost $1.6 million annually.

There are no reductions in staff or programming – these are transmission platform reductions only. Programming continues to be available through other media.

Shortwave transmissions continue in many languages including to key shortwave markets like North Korea, Nigeria, Somalia, Horn of Africa, and elsewhere. (List enclosed below). Transmissions also continue on other platforms including AM, FM, TV and online.

VOA Azerbaijani
- Cuts: 30 minutes SW
- Continuing Distribution: Satellite TV (HotBird)and satellite audio (TurkSat); Multimedia web and mobile sites & social media
- SW is used by just 2% of adults weekly in Azerbaijan, and does not yield significant audiences for the service (0.4% weekly reach on radio in BBG’s most recent survey). By contrast, satellite dish ownership is widespread, at 56%, and 18% use the Internet weekly. The service has both satellite and online products, which are far more likely to reach audiences in Azerbaijan.

VOA Bangla
-  Cuts: 1 hour SW
-  Continuing Distribution: 1 hour MW(AM); FM and TV affiliates; Multimedia web and mobile sites; Social media
- SW is not widely used in Bangladesh (just 2% weekly), and the majority of the service’s audience comes to its programming via FM and TV affiliate networks in the country.

VOA English (in Asia)
-  Cuts: 6.5 hours SW (2 hours of programming that was repeated)
-  Continuing Distribution: Some MW; Multimedia web and mobile sites & social media
-  Outside of sub-Saharan Africa, English speakers are rarely users of shortwave radio. They are more likely to be educated and affluent, and to have access to a broad range of media. Years of BBG research questions on consumption of VOA English on shortwave have failed to find any significant audiences outside Africa, in large part because usage of shortwave radio in other regions is mostly very low.

VOA Lao
- Cuts: 30 minutes SW
- Continuing Distribution: 30 minutes MW; 7 affiliates in Thailand on Lao border, with reach into Laos; Multimedia web and mobile sites; Social media
- SW is very little-used in Laos – less than 1% of adults report listening to SW radio weekly. In BBG’s most recent research in Laos, no surveyed listeners reported using the SW band to access VOA content. A strong majority (66%) hear VOA on FM, through affiliate stations on the Thai border that carry VOA content (Laos is so small that border FM stations have decent penetration into the country).

VOA Special/Learning English
-  Cuts: 5.5 hours SW
- Continuing Distribution: Learning English programs continue on SW on English to Africa. 30 minutes MW; Multimedia web and mobile sites, including special interactive teaching products; Social media, including social English lessons
- BBG audience research indicates strong interest in learning English, but very limited shortwave listenership to VOA Learning English, outside a few select markets. The service is working more closely with other VOA language services to create English learning products for distribution on more popular channels. And Learning English offers a variety of digital products that are increasingly popular, including a Skype call-in show, videos on YouTube, and a website featuring both audio and transcripts for online audiences to follow as they listen.

VOA Uzbek
-  Cuts: 30 minutes SW
- Continuing Distribution: Satellite audio and TV (HotBird); FM and TV affiliates in neighboring countries; Multimedia web and mobile sites (with circumvention tools deployed); Social media
- SW is not widely used in Uzbekistan (just 2% weekly), and does not yield significant audiences for the service (0.3% weekly). Adults in Uzbekistan are much more likely to own a satellite dish (13%) or use the internet (12% weekly) than to use SW, so the service provides content on those platforms. Uzbekistan is an especially difficult market to penetrate with USIM content, but SW is not an effective platform for the country.

RFE/RL Persian (Farda)
-  Cuts: 1 simultaneous SW frequency for 6 broadcast hours
- Continuing Distribution: SW on multiple frequencies for all 24 broadcast hours remains on, in addition to 24 hours daily MW; “Radio on TV” on VOA Persian stream; 24 hours daily satellite audio with slate plus 24 hour Audio on 4 other satellites including Hotbird, the most popular satellite in Iran; Multimedia website (with circumvention tools deployed); Social media; mobile app with anti-censorship proxy server capability built-in.
- This is only a reduction to the number of simultaneous frequencies during some of the broadcast day. SW radio, with 5% weekly use in 2012, is considerably less popular than other platforms on which audiences can access Farda content, such as MW (10% weekly use), satellite television (26% own a dish, and 33% watch satellite television weekly) or the internet (39% weekly use).

RFA Lao
- Cuts: 2 hours SW
- Continuing Distribution: 5 FM radio affiliates in Thailand provide cross-border coverage; Multimedia web & mobile sites; Social media
- SW is very little-used in Laos – less than 1% of adults report listening to SW radio weekly. RFA Lao’s listeners come overwhelmingly via FM stations on the Thai border – 94% of past-week listeners report hearing RFA on FM. (Laos is so small that border FM stations have decent penetration into the country).

RFA Vietnamese
-  Cuts: 2 hours SW
- Continuing Distribution: MW coverage of all broadcast hours remains on; Multimedia web and mobile sites (with circumvention tools deployed) include webcasts and other videos; Social media
- SW radio is very little-used in Vietnam – less than 1% of adults report any weekly use of the waveband, and RFA reaches just 0.2% of adults weekly on radio. MW is slightly more popular, but the future for USIM in Vietnam is likely online: 26% of Vietnamese use the Internet weekly now (with much higher rates among certain populations, like the young and the well-educated), and three in four personally own a mobile phone. While Vietnam attempts to block access to sensitive sites, Vietnam is actually the most active country in our most popular Internet Anti-Censorship tools with almost 600 million hits per day.

LANGUAGES THAT WILL CONTINUE ON SHORT-WAVE

VOA
    Afan Oromo/Amharic/Tigrigna to Ethiopia and Eritrea
    Bambara
    Burmese
    Cantonese
    Dari
    English to Africa
    English to South Sudan
    French to Africa
    Hausa
    Khmer
    Kinyarwanda/Kirundi
    Korean
    Kurdish
    Mandarin
    Pashto (to FATA and Afghanistan)
    Portuguese to Africa
    Somali
    Swahili
    Tibetan
    Shona/Ndebele/English to Zimbabwe

OCB
    Spanish to Cuba

RFE/RL
    Avar/Chechen/Circassian
    Belarusian
    Dari
    Pashto (to FATA and Afghanistan)
    Persian
    Russian
    Tajik
    Turkmen
    Uzbek

RFA
    Burmese
    Cantonese
    Khmer
    Korean
    Mandarin
    Tibetan
    Uyghur

MBN
    Arabic (Afia Darfur to Sudan/Chad)